Why Do We Need Thermal Design?
Rolling stock computers deployed on moving vehicles could be exposed to both extremely hot and cold temperatures. The EN50155 standard includes specific criteria for operating temperature.

Rolling stock computers should be tested to conform to the classification level required by the specific application. Currently, a -40 to 70°C operating temperature range is the widest standard required for the EN50155 Tx Class.
  The ideal embedded computer must combine a small form factor with high computing performance, a wide operating temperature, and long MTBF. However, it is difficult to balance all of these requirements since satisfying one requirement makes it more difficult to satisfy the others. For example, a high computing performance generates more heat, but the fact that it is more difficult to dissipate heat in a limited space could create system instability and increased wear and tear. What is needed is a thermal design that will dissipate heat efficiently in order to successfully achieve all of the requirements of an ideal embedded computer.
See How We Did It —
Moxa's Solutions & Technologies  
System-wide Design
Staying Cool in High Temperatures
  • Unique Heat Dissipation
• Heat Pipe Technology
Staying Warm in Low Temperatures
  • Auto Temperature Gain Control System (ATGCS) Design
  Systematic (System-wide Design)
  Moxa Designs at a System-wide Level
Most IPC providers design at the component level. For example, you can cool down a heat source by attaching an external heat sink. This type of component level design process might meet specification requirements, but cannot ensure the entire system's long term stability, reliability, and durability.
In industry, operating in harsh environments is commonplace, and stability, reliability, ruggedness, and longevity are absolute requirements of industrial computers. To ensure that Moxa's industrial computers are robust enough for industrial use, they are designed at the system level. Doing so may make the design process more complicated and time-consuming, but creates comprehensive system-wide solutions that can guarantee system stability. Moxa's design emphasizes a wide operating temperature range, vibration and shock resistance, and protection against power failure, electrostatic discharge, and electromagnetic interference.
  Staying Cool in High Temperatures
Optimized Heat Dissipation Regions
and Precise Heat Sink Design
Traditional externally-attached heat sinks can only go so far. To create a more robust heat dissipation design, Moxa's thermal design controls a PCB high temperature area in the thermal module's center to optimize heat dispatch efficiency and a large heat dissipation zone to maximize heat dispatch areas.
Heat sink design must take hot spots and temperature endurance into consideration. Important design factors include fin height, fin gap, and fin thickness. All of these parameters must be balanced to optimize heat dissipation and maximize system efficiency.
  Heat Pipe Technology
Heat pipe technology is particularly suitable for board-based products that contain CPUs and chipsets as the primary heat sources because thermal pads and heat absorbers can be placed directly above these components. One or more copper heat pipes can then conduct this heat towards a location where it is easier to dissipate, such as a plate on the front of the computer. These hollow heat pipes are lined with a wick containing a fluid, such as water, to absorb heat. In addition, the heat pipes take part in the thermal cycle and transfer heat from one side of the computer to the other.
By relying on scientific principles—Capillarity Phenomena and the Phase Change Principle—Moxa came up with an innovative solution that takes into consideration the specific physical characteristics of the heat pipe. This novel technology conducts heat more efficiently.
  Staying Warm in Low Temperatures
  Auto Temperature Gain Control System
(ATGCS) Design
In highly temperature- variable environments, most systems crash in low temperatures because most components cannot operate below 0°C. With Moxa's Auto Temperature Gain Control System (ATGCS) technology, it is possible to manipulate the internal temperature of the computer. This new technology can adjust the internal temperature of the computer automatically to accommodate changes in the external temperature. For example, when the temperature drops below a certain point, such as -40°C, the variable power system can keep the internal temperature above a certain level, even in extremely cold environments.  
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